How to weave new spring when Chinese textile meets "reverse cold"
Relevant data show that the textile industry has become the second largest industry for Chinese enterprises to "go out". At present, about 14 million children of farmers are employed in the textile and garment industry, earning more than 100 billion yuan a year. Many enterprises are keen to introduce technology by purchasing foreign production equipment, but ignore the introduction of soft technology and the introduction of technology digestion and absorption innovation, the result can only be "introduction, introduction, re-introduction". Textile industry to strengthen the construction of independent brands is the need to realize the transformation of economic growth mode, to promote the optimization and upgrading of economic structure, and to improve export competitiveness. Textile industry is one of the important industries in China. For a long time, it has played an important role in satisfying people's clothing consumption, increasing social employment, expanding export to earn foreign exchange, accumulating construction funds and supporting related industries.
Since the reform and opening up, the textile industry has entered a period of rapid development, and basically formed a complete industrial system connecting the upper, middle and lower reaches, weaving a gorgeous "spring". However, the development of China's textile industry is still suffering from the erosion of "reverse cold" due to low value-added products, lack of innovation ability, unbalanced industrial development and increasing international trade friction. China's textile industry through large-scale structural adjustment at the end of the last century, ended the industry six consecutive years of losses, to the track of benign development. Thanks to the spring breeze of reform and opening up, the textile industry has undergone tremendous changes. Its production capacity and performance have been greatly improved. Relying on the international and domestic markets, millions of textile enterprises compete and flourish from five aspects. We have achieved remarkable results.
During the tenth Five-year Plan period, with the sustained, healthy and rapid development of the domestic economy and the deepening of global trade integration, the textile industry has ushered in new development opportunities. It is the five years with the fastest and fastest development and has made great contributions to the national economy. According to the statistics of China National Textile Industry Association, the number of enterprises above designated size in China's textile industry increased from 19,400 in 2000 to 35,000 in 2005 during the tenth five-year Plan period. The industrial output value of textile industry increased from 1.53 trillion yuan to more than 3 trillion yuan in 2005, with an average annual growth rate of 16.6% in five years. The total fiber processing volume increased from 13.6 million tons to about 26 million tons in 2005, up 91%, accounting for about 35% of the world's total fiber processing volume. The share of total textile and apparel exports in the world rose from 14.6 percent to 22 percent in 2005. The trade surplus in textiles and clothing increased from US $38.15 billion to US $97.89 billion in 2005, accounting for 96 percent of the national trade surplus. The industrial chain structure is complete, and industrial aggregation is further accelerated.
After years of development, China's textile industry has formed a relatively complete industrial chain system of raw materials, spinning, weaving, printing and dyeing, finishing and industrial clusters with strong supporting capacity, reducing production costs on the whole. These textile industrial clusters can not only promote specialized division of labor and cooperation, form sufficient market competition, but also enhance the extensibility of regional economy and make the regional specialization level constantly improve. Non - public components rise to prominence. In 2005, non-state investment, such as collective investment, joint venture investment, joint-stock investment and private investment, grew rapidly, totaling 112.9 billion yuan, an increase of 45.7%, accounting for 70.7% of total investment, up from 65.7% at the end of 2004. In 2005, the owner's equity of textile enterprises above designated size increased by 83% compared with 2000, among which the owner's equity of state-owned and state-holding enterprises decreased by 35% and that of non-state-owned enterprises increased by 1.63 times. Textile enterprises "go out" initial results. In the context of economic globalization, some enterprises have effectively broken through trade barriers, better participated in the optimal allocation of global resources and realized the diversification of origin by investing in overseas factories. Relevant data show that textile industry has become the second largest industry for Chinese enterprises to "go global". By the end of 2004, there were 114 overseas textile and garment enterprises approved by the Ministry of Commerce, with Chinese investment of us $715 million distributed in 45 countries and regions.
It will play an important role in solving problems concerning agriculture, rural areas and farmers. Textile industry is closely related to agriculture, rural areas and farmers, and the development of textile industry has steadily increased the demand for natural fiber. In 2005, the textile industry consumed 7.3 million tons of natural fiber, affecting the livelihood of 100 million farmers. As a labor-intensive industry, the textile industry absorbs a large number of surplus rural labor. At present, about 14 million farmers' children are employed in the textile and garment industry, which can obtain an annual income of more than 100 billion yuan. The rapid development and improvement of the textile industry has contributed to the transformation of a large number of farmers into industrial workers, the process of urbanization and industrialization in many rural areas, promoted the solution of dual economy, and assumed important historical responsibilities for the industry to nurture agriculture. While China's textile industry has achieved rapid development, it has also gradually exposed some deep-rooted contradictions and problems from seven aspects, such as the lack of independent innovation ability, lack of brand, disorderly competition in the market, low income of workers, difficult life and so on. With the advent of post-quota era, trade frictions have increased significantly, new trade barriers have appeared, and the reform of RMB exchange rate mechanism has brought severe challenges to the textile industry, such as raw material shortage and price rise. The capacity for independent innovation is insufficient. The innovation system is not sound, it lacks the ability to digest and absorb advanced technologies, and it is weak in technological innovation and original design and development. According to the 2004 national industrial census, the proportion of r&d investment in industrial enterprises above designated size accounted for 0.56 percent of sales revenue, while only 0.3 percent in the textile industry. Many enterprises are keen to introduce technology by purchasing foreign production equipment, but ignore the introduction of soft technology and the introduction of technology digestion and absorption innovation, the result can only be "introduction, introduction, re-introduction", the overall equipment situation of the domestic textile industry has not been fundamentally changed. Brand missing. Although China is the world's largest textile and apparel exporter, the apparel self-owned brand exports less than 1%. China's excellent processing quality is recognized by the world, most of the world famous clothing brands are processed in China, but there is no world-class clothing brand with independent intellectual property rights in China. In the domestic market, local brand influence is not strong. China's clothing (including shoes and hats) has more than 200,000 registered trademarks, but there are less than 100 brands with independent intellectual property rights and national recognition, and the domestic high-end clothing market is dominated by foreign brands. The market is uncompetitive. Due to the low entry threshold of the textile industry, stimulated by the favorable factors of China's accession to wto, the investment growth rate in some regions and some industries is too high, and the blind expansion of some enterprises has intensified the excessive competition in the industry. For example, in the chemical fiber industry, investment has been concentrated in the past five years. In particular, polyester capacity increased by 2.7 times from 4.9 million tons in 2000 to 18 million tons in 2005, with an average operating rate of only 70%. Textile capacity increased from 34 million ingot in 2000 to 75 million ingot in 2005. In addition, in order to reduce costs, some enterprises do not hesitate to take some illegal means, or jerry-built, or in violation of labor protection law, or tax evasion, formed unfair competition to standardized enterprises, seriously disturbed the market, easy to cause international trade disputes.
Workers low income, difficult life. Compared with most countries and regions in the world, the labor cost of China's textile industry is lower (see table). According to the Chinese finance &trade textile tobacco trade union of tianjin, Shanghai, zhengzhou, shijiazhuang, handan and other provinces and cities some textile company worker income survey, state-owned and restructuring textile company worker wages are generally lower, more than 90% of the surveyed area textile worker years did not get a raise, or even years without a salary, some production line worker salary under standard of local minimum wage. According to statistics, in 2004, the average annual salary of employees in urban units nationwide was 16,024 yuan, and that of employees in state-owned and large-scale textile enterprises was 8,000 yuan, only 50 percent of the national average salary. The low income of textile workers leads to a difficult life for some workers, who are overwhelmed by their children's schooling, housing difficulties and major diseases. International trade frictions are getting worse. On January 1, 2005, the global textile quota system that had been implemented for 40 years came to an end. The huge energy released by China's textile industry shook the global market. However, five months later, a long-planned "backward spring cold" quietly hit, in the spring wave ripples over China's textile industry, cast a heavy shadow. China's textile export is not only restricted by developed countries such as Europe and America, but also confronted with trade friction from developing countries. At present, Europe and the United States have imposed quantitative restrictions on 22 types of Chinese products by using the "Section 242 special Guarantee Clause", and the trade friction against China's textile and garment export will continue for a long time. After the "Section 242 special Guarantee Clause" expires in 2008, the "transitional specific product safeguard measures" can continue to be implemented until 2013. China's market economy status has not been universally recognized, so that Chinese enterprises are in a disadvantageous position for a long time in responding to anti-dumping, and China's textile export will be restricted to a certain extent. The reform of RMB exchange rate mechanism forms new challenges to textile industry.
In the long run, the reform of RMB exchange rate mechanism is of positive significance for easing textile trade friction, promoting structural adjustment of textile industry and transforming growth mode. However, as textile industry is a labor-intensive industry with large export surplus and low average profit margin, and most enterprises have low level of international operation, it is difficult to adapt to floating exchange rate mechanism in the short term and weak ability to resist exchange rate risks. At present, the international community calls for RMB appreciation, the negative impact of RMB appreciation on textile industry can not be ignored. Higher raw material prices add to cost pressures. Cotton, chemical fiber, etc., are the main raw materials of the textile industry. The price change has a profound influence on the downstream textile enterprises, and is directly related to the change of the cost and profit of the textile enterprises. The cotton price often appears stage big fluctuation, among them the most important reason is raw material shortage. From 2000 to 2005, the annual output and demand gap of domestic cotton were 910,000 tons, 510,000 tons, 1.48 million tons, 2.29 million tons, 2.6 million tons and 3.5 million tons respectively. Cotton price fluctuated greatly, the purchase price was 360 yuan/Dan in 2001, 400 yuan/Dan in 2002, 750 yuan/Dan in 2003, decreased in 2004, and rose to 700 yuan/Dan in 2005. Chemical fiber is the downstream product of crude oil, which is greatly affected by the rise of crude oil price. The market price has been hovering at a high level while the cotton price is rising. The international oil price was 29 dollars per barrel at the end of 2003, 40 dollars at the end of 2004, 60 dollars at the end of 2005 and 70 dollars at present. The cost of raw materials rises sharply and the selling price of textile products is difficult to rise synchronously. How to weave a new spring The change of external environment is not only a severe challenge to the textile industry, but also provides an opportunity for the textile industry to speed up structural adjustment and improve competitiveness. The increase of international trade friction, although increased the difficulty of China's textile and garment export, but conducive to promote the change of export growth mode of enterprises; The reform of exchange rate mechanism requires enterprises to improve the level of international management and the ability to allocate resources across borders. Environmental and resource constraints will also enhance industry awareness of resource conservation and development of circular economy.
"Spring is the beginning of a year's plan", textile industry facing all kinds of challenges, must take proactive measures from six aspects. Special textile funds will be set up to promote technological innovation and industrial upgrading. Suggested that the country from the textile export tariff revenue and export restrictions on products bidding income in a portion of the money to set up textile industrial upgrading of technological innovation special funds, concentrated on the key technology of the current textile industry technology innovation and industry upgrading and complete sets of equipment research, support in the main industrial cluster to establish public service platform of small and medium-sized enterprises, Support the construction and promotion of independent textile and garment brands. We will improve enterprises' capacity for independent innovation. First, establish a new-type industrial innovation demonstration system that combines industry, learning and research, concentrate on solving common problems in industrial technological innovation, and accelerate the transformation and application of new technological achievements. Second, promote the construction of industrial cluster innovation service platform, promote the industrial cluster export products structure upgrade. The industrial innovation platform serves small and medium-sized enterprises in industrial clusters with weak technology and product development ability and low management level, provides comprehensive innovation services for enterprises, improves enterprise innovation ability and technology, operation and management level, and speeds up the upgrading of export products of industrial clusters. Third, strengthen guidance and give play to the leading role of key enterprises in industrial innovation. Enterprises are the main body of innovation, and the innovation system of industries and industrial clusters serves enterprises. Key enterprises should be guided to increase input in technological research and development and improve the level of technological innovation. Strengthen brand building. Textile industry to strengthen the construction of independent brands is to realize the transformation of economic growth mode, to promote the optimization and upgrading of economic structure, is to improve the export competitiveness of the need. Should the key support, foster a batch of in brand design, technology research and development, the advantages of the enterprise marketing channel construction, encourage the textile industry, the industry cluster area build industry brand, regional brand, create own brand market environment, to form a number of independent brands, with international influence make the textile and apparel export proportion of own-brand products has improved obviously. Adjust the distribution of industries. The construction of projects with high energy consumption, high pollution and low level should be strictly controlled, and industrial policy research and investment early warning system should be regularly issued to guide the textile industry to "adjust in development and upgrade in adjustment". By taking advantage of resources and labor costs in the central and western regions, the textile industry in the eastern and coastal regions will be guided to gradually shift primary processing and conventional product production to the central and western regions and to raw material production areas, so that the eastern and coastal regions will concentrate on r&d, design, international trade and medium-high grade products. We will continue to implement the "going global" strategy. The existing policies should be used to guide and encourage powerful textile and garment enterprises to set up "China textile Industrial Park" or "production and processing base" in Central and South America, Eastern Europe, Africa, South Asia and other regions to carry out transnational resource allocation and exploit the advantages of local market resources to open up diversified markets.
Strengthen industry self-discipline, standardize industry development environment. Support industry association and other intermediary organizations in industry self-discipline, corporate social responsibility certification, international cooperation and communication and organize activities of overseas investment and corporate training, improve the industry and enterprise dealing with international trade disputes and the ability to resolve trade friction, orderly, efficient and standardized the industry development, avoid the unordered development will bring excessive competition and unfair competition problems, Establish a good image of China's textile industry.想了解更多电力电子器件研发制造、封装测试和应用销售的高新技术，请持续关注江苏索力德普半导体科技有限公司