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When China's textile "pollen" how to weave a new spring
Since reform and opening-up, the textile industry has entered a rapid development period, basic formed, middle and lower reaches of all kinds of industry system, weave a gorgeous "spring". However, due to China's textile industry low value-added products, lack of innovation, industry development is not balanced and the deepening of international trade friction, the development of the textile industry is still suffering from the erosion of pollen. Where is the spring Textile industry after the end of last century in our country large-scale structural adjustment, the end of the industry for six consecutive years of losses, to the healthy development track. Bathed in the spring breeze of reform and opening-up, great changes have taken place in textile industry, production capacity, improve performance significantly, relying on both international and domestic market, thousand sails to compete sends millions of textile enterprises, person, from the five aspects presented the awaken of spring is abundant prosperity. The outstanding achievements.
During the tenth five-year plan, with the sustained healthy and rapid development of domestic economy and the integration of global trade, the textile industry ushered in the new development opportunities, is the largest and fastest growing steps for five years, contributing to a larger national economy. According to statistics, China's textile industry association "15" during our country textile enterprises above designated size number from 19400 in 2000, in 2005 to 35000; Textile industrial output value of 1.53 trillion yuan, increased to more than 3 trillion yuan in 2005, five years an average annual growth rate of 16.6%; Fiber processing volume of 13.6 million tons, up to about 26 million tons in 2005, an increase of 91%, accounting for about 35% of the world's total fiber processing; Textile clothing exports accounted for the proportion of the world by 14.6%, rising to 22% in 2005. Textile clothing trade surplus increased from $38.15 billion, to $2005 in 97.89 billion, accounting for 96% of the national trade surplus. Complete industry chain structure, industry gathered further speed up.
China's textile industry after years of development, has formed the raw material, spinning, weaving, printing, dyeing, finishing relatively complete industrial chain system and industrial supporting ability strong industrial clusters, as a whole to reduce the production cost. The textile industry cluster can not only promote the specialized division of labor cooperation, form good competition in the market, also can promote the regional economic extensionality, make the regional specialization level enhances unceasingly. Non-public ownership composition. Collective, pool, 2005 shares, private and other non-state investment growth faster, completed investment amount of 112.9 billion yuan, increased by 45.7%, the proportion of total investment increased to 70.7% from 65.7% at the end of 2004. 2005 textile enterprises above designated size owners' equity a 83% growth in 2000, a 35% drop in the state-owned and state holding enterprises in the owner's equity, non-state enterprise owners' equity growth 1.63 times. Textile enterprises "going out" produced results. Under the background of economic globalization, some enterprises through to set up factories overseas investment, effectively break through barriers to trade, to better participate in global optimal allocation of resources, realize the origin diversification. Relevant data show that textile industry has become our country enterprise "going out", the second largest industry, by the end of 2004, approved by the ministry of commerce of the 114 foreign textile and garment enterprises, China invested $715 million, located in 45 countries and regions.
To solve the problem of agriculture, rural areas and farmers play an important role. Related very closely to textile industry and agriculture, rural areas and farmers, the development of the textile industry, the demand for natural fiber is stable growth. Consume 7.3 million tons of natural fiber in textile industry, 2005, is related to the livelihood of 100 million farmers. Textile industry as labor-intensive industries a large number of absorbing rural surplus labor force, about 14 million in the textile and garment industry employment to farmers' children, may obtain 100 billion yuan more than a year. Textile industry rapid development promoted to a large number of farmers to industrial workers, many rural urbanization, industrialization process, promote to solve the dual economy, to bear the important historical responsibility of industry regurgitation feeding agriculture. "Pollen in the spring" of our country's textile industry in the rapid development at the same time, also from seven aspects gradually exposed some deep-seated contradictions and problems, such as independent innovation ability is insufficient, lack of brand, market competition, the worker income is low, life difficult, etc. With the advent of the era of the quota and trade frictions increased significantly, the emergence of new trade barriers and the RMB exchange rate mechanism reform, the tension of raw materials, the prices and other issues to the textile industry has brought serious challenges. Lack of capacity for independent innovation. Innovation system is not sound, lack of digestion and absorption of advanced technology, technology innovation, original design and development ability. The national industrial census, in 2004, according to the national industrial enterprises above designated size used in the research and development investment accounted for 0.56% of the proportion of sales revenue for the textile industry is only 0.3%. Many companies are eager to buy production equipment to the introduction of foreign technology, and ignore the soft technology introduction and digestion and absorption of imported technology innovation, the result can only be "introduction, introduction, introduced the" again, the domestic textile industry overall equipment condition has not been a fundamental shift. Lack of brand. Although our country is the world's biggest exporter of textile clothing export less than 1% but clothing brands. Excellent processing quality of China is the world recognized, and for the most part the world famous clothing brand in the domestic processing, but our country is still a world-class clothing brand with independent intellectual property rights. In the domestic market, domestic brands influence is also not strong. Clothing (including shoes) registered trademark in China more than 200000, but there is insufficient awareness of the independent intellectual property rights and national brand hundreds of domestic high-grade by foreign brand clothing market. The market competition. Due to the textile industry to enter the threshold is not high, in the positive factors of China's accession to wto, under the stimulus of parts, some industry investment growth too hard, some enterprises blindly expand aggravated the excessive competition in the industry. Investment is relatively concentrated, such as chemical fiber industry in recent five years especially polyester capacity increased from 2000 tonnes in 4.9 million to 2005 tonnes in 18 million, increased by 2.7 times, the average capacity utilization is only 70%. Ability of textile from 34 million pounds in 2000, up to 75 million pounds in 2005. In addition, in order to reduce costs, some companies do not hesitate to take some illegal means, or cut corners, or violation of labor laws, or tax evasion, the specification form the unfair competition of enterprise, severely disrupted the market, easy to cause the international trade disputes.
The worker income is low, life difficult. Compared with most countries and regions in the world textile industry, textile industry in our country labor cost is relatively low (see chart). According to the Chinese finance &trade textile tobacco trade union of tianjin, Shanghai, zhengzhou, shijiazhuang, handan and other provinces and cities some textile company worker income survey, state-owned and restructuring textile company worker wages are generally lower, more than 90% of the surveyed area textile worker years did not get a raise, or even years without a salary, some production line worker salary under standard of local minimum wage. According to statistics, 2004 of the urban unit on-the-job worker average wage of 16024 yuan, and state-owned textile enterprises above designated size worker per capita salary RMB 8000 per year, only 50% of the national worker average wage. Textile worker income is low, cause the worker struggling life, by his children to school, housing difficulties, serious illness need to breath. Increasing international trade friction. Was introduced on January 1, 2005, 40 years of global textile quotas came to an end, our country textile industry the huge energy release, the global market. After five months, however, a plan to "pollen" creeps up for a long time, in the spring tides occur over the ripples of the textile industry in our country, cast a heavy shadow. China's textile export not only meet restrictions from Europe and the United States and other developed countries, but also from developing countries trade friction. At present, the use of "242" section of the safeguard clause Europe and the United States has imposed limit 22 products to me, for our country textile clothing export trade friction will continue quite a long time, in 2008 after "242" section of the safeguard clause failure, there are specific product security measures "transition" can continue to implement until 2013. China's market economy status, is not recognized by the common responses to the anti-dumping of companies in our country at a disadvantage for a long time, China's textile export will be subject to certain constraints. The RMB exchange rate mechanism reform of textile industry to form a new challenge.
In the long run, the RMB exchange rate mechanism reform to alleviate the textile trade friction, promote the textile industry structure adjustment, transformation of the mode of growth has positive significance. But due to the textile industry belongs to the labor-intensive industries, large export surplus, average profit margin is low, and most of the internationalization of enterprise management level is not high, the floating exchange rate mechanism in the short term is difficult to meet, to resist the ability of the exchange rate risk is weak. At present the international community to the call for an appreciation of the renminbi is higher, the negative impact of the appreciation of the renminbi on textile industry is significant. Raw material prices increased cost pressure. Such as cotton, chemical fiber textile industry is the main raw material, the price changes on the downstream textile enterprise far-reaching, textile enterprises has a close relationship with costs and profits. Cotton prices often appear periodic fluctuations, one of the most important reason is the shortage of raw materials. Domestic cotton in 2000-2005 year countless gap, respectively for 910000 tons, 910000 tons, 1.48 million tons, 2.29 million tons, 2.29 million tons and 3.5 million tons. Cotton price fluctuations is bigger, in 2001, the price is in 360 yuan, in 2002 to 400 yuan, in 2003 to 750 yuan, fell in 2004, 2005 and rose to 700 yuan. Chemical fiber for downstream products of crude oil, the crude oil price has had a huge impact, the market price in cotton prices rise at the same time run, has been high. In late 2003, the international oil prices to $29, 2004 at the end of the international oil prices rose to $40 a barrel, the end of the 2005 international oil prices rose to more than $60 a barrel, is now above $70 a barrel. Raw material costs rose sharply and synch textile products sales prices, two extrusion will eventually lead to the result of the textile industry profit margins decline. How to weave a new spring the change of the external environment is not only a serious challenge to textile industry, also for the textile industry provides opportunities to speed up structural adjustment, improve the competitiveness. International trade friction increase, has increased the difficulty of Chinese textile clothing export, but change the way of export growth is conducive to enterprise; Require companies to raise the level of internationalization management of exchange rate regime reform and global allocation of resources ability; Environment, resource constraints will also strengthen industry increase awareness of resources conservation and the development of circular economy.
"Spring", the textile industry to face the challenges, we must save for a rainy day, take positive countermeasures from six aspects. Set up textile special funds, promote technological innovation and industrial upgrading. Suggested that the country from the textile export tariff revenue and export restrictions on products bidding income in a portion of the money to set up textile industrial upgrading of technological innovation special funds, concentrated on the key technology of the current textile industry technology innovation and industry upgrading and complete sets of equipment research, support in the main industrial cluster of small and medium-sized enterprises set up for public service platform, support textile clothing independent brand construction and promotion. Improve the ability of self-directed innovation. One is to establish the combination of production, study and research new industry innovation demonstration system, focus on solving common problems of industry technological innovation, accelerate the transformation and application of new technological achievements. The second is to promote construction of industrial clusters innovation service platform, promote industry cluster to upgrade the structure of export products. Industry innovation platform service in technology and product development ability, low management level of industry cluster of small and medium-sized enterprises, provide enterprises with a comprehensive service innovation, promote enterprise innovation ability and technology, management, management level, to accelerate the upgrading of industrial cluster of export products. Three is to strengthen guidance, play a leading role in the backbone enterprise in the industry innovation, enterprise is the main body of innovation, industry and industrial cluster innovation system for enterprise services, to guide the backbone enterprises increase investment in technology research and development, and improve the level of technological innovation. To strengthen the construction of brand. Textile industry to strengthen the construction of independent brands is to achieve the needs of economic growth mode transformation, is the need of promote economic structure optimization and upgrading, is the need to improve the export competitiveness. Should the key support, foster a batch of in brand design, technology research and development, the advantages of the enterprise marketing channel construction, encourage the textile industry, the industry cluster area build industry brand, regional brand, create own brand market environment, to form a number of independent brands, with international influence make the textile and apparel export proportion of own-brand products has improved obviously. Adjust the industrial layout. Strict control of high energy consumption, pollution, low level of project construction, strengthen the industry industrial policy research and investment periodically release early warning system, to guide textile industry "in developing adjustment and upgrade" in the adjustment. Utilization of, and labor cost advantage of western resources, guide the eastern region, the coastal areas of textile industry gradually transferring pretreating, normal product production to the central and western regions, to raw material, make the eastern and coastal areas focus on the design of research and development, international trade and the direction of the upscale product development. Continue to implement the strategy of "going out". Use of the existing policies, guide and encourage strong textile and garment enterprises, to central and South America, eastern Europe, Africa, South Asia and other regions to establish "China textile industrial park" or "production and processing base", the international resource configuration, using local market resources advantage, open up more markets.
Strengthening industry self-discipline, standardize trade development environment. Support industry association and other intermediary organizations in industry self-discipline, corporate social responsibility certification, international cooperation and communication and organize activities of overseas investment and corporate training, improve the industry and enterprise dealing with international trade disputes and the ability to resolve trade friction, orderly, efficient and standardized the industry development, avoid the unordered development will bring excessive competition and unfair competition problems, and to establish a good image of our country's textile industry.